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Isotta-Fraschini

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Isotta logo2.jpg
Isotta-Fraschini Tipo 8A S LeBaron Boattail Roadster


Isotta Fraschini was know as "The Aristocrat of Automobiles." This was the Italian supreme luxury marque from Milan which only the most elite could own. Today Isotta-Fraschini is a set of several companies.


History

Isotta-Fraschini Tipo 8 Sala Phaeton

Isotta Fraschini was the most extreme and ultra-luxury marque in Italy; it was a true Italian pedigree, regarded as highly as Rolls-Royce is to the British but even more unusual. Like its Anglo counterpart, the name was made up of two surnames of its founders, Cesare Isotta and Oreste Fraschini. This high-end luxury car marque was established as Fabbrica Automobili Isotta-Fraschini. Prior to establishing their own company in 1903, Isotta and Fraschini were assembling Renault autombiles beginning in 1899.

The first automobile which this marque produced featured a four cylinder that had an output of 12 hp (9 kW) which was succeeded by 16 hp 12 kW then 24 hp (18 kW). In 1905 Isotta-Fraschini gained much notoriety in the race, Coppa Florio which they entered their Tipo D that featured a 17 liter 100 hp (75)engine. For a short time, in 1907 Isotta-Fraschini merged with the French company Lorraine-Dietich

The Isotta-Fraschini is the automobile driven by the character Norma Desmond in the Oscar winning movie "Sunset Boulevard." In the movie, which is set in the 1940s, Norma is a forgotten former silent film star from the 19teens and 1920s, and the car represents both the height her glamour and how its time has past.

1913 Isotta-Fraschini
1914 Isotta-Fraschini Tipo KM 140hp 650cid Small
1929 Isotta Fraschini 8A
  • Fabbrica Automobili Isotta-Fraschini S.p.A., for a while the name and trademark was in the hands of the Italian government from which an Italian businessman Giuliano Malvino purchased it. At the present time this company is inactive although there is talk that is will be resurrected to compete Maybach, Rolls-Royce, and Bentley.


  • 135bhp, 449.5 cu. in. inline eight-cylinder engine
  • Three speed manual transmission
  • Front and rear half elliptic leaf spring suspension
  • Four-wheel power drum brakes
  • Wheelbase: 145.6"


Cesare Isotta and the Fraschini brothers Vincenzo Fraschini, Antonio Fraschini and Oreste Fraschini, were introduced to the world of automobile manufacturing when they decided to start importing French cars to be assembled in Italy.

In 1904, Isotta and the Fraschinis, with the straightforward motto, “Import, sell, repair cars” founded their own company, the Società Milanese Automobili Isotta, Fraschini & C. Cesare Isotta, a lawyer by profession, was instrumental in getting the company off the ground. The Fraschini brothers naturally gravitated towards their respective aptitudes within their newly formed company.

A preferred meeting place of the founders of Isotta-Fraschini was at the home of a very well-heeled family in their hometown of Milan. This home, belonging to Bianchi Anderlonis, seems like an odd location for young, enterprising men to gather and discuss business, until one is told of the three Anderlonis sisters who resided there.

Speculation about the motives for this chosen place to discuss business were put to rest when Cesare Isotta wed Maria Anderlonis, Vincenzo Fraschini married Teodolinda and Antonio Fraschini tied the knot with the third sister, Carla. As for Oreste Fraschini, he would remain a bachelor for the rest of his life.

Being brothers-in-law did not prevent Isotta and the Fraschinis from being excellent business partners, and in 1905 the budding automobile company hired engineer Giustino Cattaneo to be Isotta-Fraschini’s technical director. This would prove to be one of the greatest decisions ever made by the company, as Cattaneo, through his endeavors with Isotta-Fraschini, would become one of the greatest Italian engineers of all time.

Cattaneo wasted no time introducing his ideas, and had the rest of the company feverishly trying to keep up. Using alphabetic designation, the ambitious engineer quickly ran through, and eventually out, of letters. This was good because the public was very receptive to these early Isotta-Fraschini automobiles.

This acceptance and praise of Isotta-Fraschini in the early years can largely be credited to the company’s success on the racetrack, of which there was plenty. Winning a race in the budding years of the automobile industry not only earned a company excellent promotion, but it proved to be the ultimate display of reliability, something that was not automatically assumed by customers when buying a new vehicle.

However, the first Isotta-Fraschini race car designed by Giustino Cattaneo may be the most famous, and certainly not for its racing success. The Isotta-Fraschini Tipo-D race car was powered by a 17,195 cubic centimeter, (1,050 cubic inch) four-cylinder engine. The bonnet stood as tall as a man and made the driver behind the wheel seem like an infant, barely able to see above the cowl. This massive roadster did not last the first lap, but it taught Cattaneo an important lesson: more than power was needed to win a race.

Just one year after Cattaneo was hired to lead product development, Isotta-Fraschini managed to secure second place to Fiat as Italy’s largest producer of automobiles. The 300 automobiles they built in 1906 was a far cry from Fiat’s 1,800, but was nonetheless quite an achievement considering the company was still in its infancy.

Seeking further advantages in Isotta-Fraschini’s now very successful racing campaigns, the company began working on a four-wheel braking system that would not adversely affect their car’s performance dynamics. Once confident with their design, they decided to showcase four-wheel braking to the general public at the 1910 Paris Auto Salon on one of their production vehicles.

The innovation was received with widespread skepticism. Pioneers in front-wheel braking had found that attempting to slow down the front wheels of a vehicle in motion created dangerous instability, and had all given up on the idea. Cattaneo picked up where all others had failed, and managed to create a four-wheel braking system that was inherently balanced, providing equal braking force to the front wheels no matter the steering input or position.

As impressive as Cattaneo’s front-wheel braking was, its significance was overshadowed shortly after the First World War when Isotta-Fraschini introduced the Tipo 8/50. It is generally agreed that the Giustino Cattaneo-designed engine powering this car was the world’s first production inline eight-cylinder engine. The Tipo 8/50 marked a polar shift for Isotta-Fraschini: no longer were they interested in producing a wide variety of vehicles and chasing success on the racetrack. In a bold and deliberate move, Isotta-Fraschini put all their eggs in one basket when they decided to become a single model car company. This model would be unlike any other, as Isotta-Fraschini had decided to start building the most luxurious cars in the entire world. Their reasoning? After the war, only the rich in Europe and America would be able to afford a new car.

The Tipo 8 would be followed by the 8A, which by every measure succeeded in redefining conventions of luxury. Primarily responsible for this was the mechanical refinement and overall dimensions of the motor car.

With light alloy pistons, drop forged connecting rods, overhead valves, and a ten main bearing crankshaft, the engine was powerful, reliable, smooth running and quiet. Naturally, the four-wheel braking was advanced for its time; with four huge drums at each corner and a vacuum servo booster (essentially unchanged today), the big car could easily and quickly come to a stop from high speeds. The chassis, made of heavy gauge stamped steel, had a standard wheelbase of 145.6 inches but could be stretched up to 157.5 inches for limousine coachwork.

As expected, only the very best coachbuilders were commissioned to body an Isotta-Fraschini. The one of a kind custom coachwork of the exquisite 1927 Isotta Fraschini 8A Boattail Tourer presented here was crafted by the Carrozzeria Italiana Cesare Sala. The Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8A chassis alone cost approximately $8,500 in 1927, while the custom coachwork by the Carrozzeria Italiana Cesare Sala would have elevated the price tag another $6,000 or more. This was considered a price worth paying, as the Milan based coachbuilding firm held a sterling reputation for producing some of the most extravagant custom bodies, earned through decades of building phenomenally ornate carriages for European royalty. Exclusivity was assured, as Cesare Sala provided opulent automobile coachwork for Isotta Fraschini alone. They considered no other automobile manufacturer worthy of their craft.Source


Models

Tipo 8

No doubt who makes this Isotta-Fraschini Mod 8 Introduced in 1919, the Tipo 8 was powered by a 5902cc in-line eight cylinder ohv engine (the first series produced in-line 8 cylinder engine in the world) and fitted with a three-speed transmission. In 1924 the 8A, with a 7372cc engine (110bhp) replaced the original car and was later joined by the 8ASS which was a more sporting model with 135bhp and a shorter wheelbase. The third series was introduced in 1931 as the 8B which continued to use the 7372cc engine (now with 150bhp) in a much developed chassis and with a 4-speed transmission.

Around 1,350 cars were built of this range, the largest percentage being the 8A.

Technical Details

  • Engine
    • 5902cc (85x130mm) straight-eight, ohv with 80bhp
    • 7372cc (95x130mm) straight-eight
  • Suspension
    • Front : beam axle with leaf springs
    • Rear : live axle with leaf springs
  • Brakes drums all round
  • Transmission 3 speed manual (later 4 speed)



8C Monterosa

An attempt by Isotta-Fraschini to re-enter the automotive market after the war, the 8C Monterosa, launched in 1947, used an unconventional approach. It was a large, six-seat car, powered by a 3400cc V8 positioned at the rear and driving the rear wheels through a five-speed transmission. The body was designed by Zagato. Four cars were built before the company ceased trading in 1949, closed by its owners, the Italian government. These were a four door berlina by Rapi (built by Zagato), another four door berlina by Touring, a two door berlina also by Touring and a cabriolet by Boneschi.



T8

1998 Isotta Fraschini T81
1998 Isotta Fraschini T81

Revealed at the Geneva Motorshow in 1996, the new Isotta-Fraschini T8 was a 2+2 Spider, also available with a hard-top. It used Audi A8 mechanicals, including four-wheel-drive and the same 4172cc 32-valve V8 engine whilst the body was all new and made of aluminium. Production was due to be undertaken at an-ex military weapons factory in Southern Italy but nothing appeared and in late 2000 the remaining hardware was sold.


Gallery

Video

Isotta Fraschini Tipo KM


External links


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