Ferrari is an Italian manufacturer of racing cars and high-performance sports cars formed by Enzo Ferrari in 1929. At first, Scuderia Ferrari sponsored drivers and manufactured racecars; the company went into independent car production in 1946, eventually became Ferrari S.p.A., and is now controlled by the Fiat group. The company is based in Maranello, near Modena, Italy.
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Ferrari founder Enzo Ferrari never intended to produce road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929 as a sponsor for amateur drivers headquartered in Modena. Ferrari prepared and successfully raced various drivers in Alfa Romeo cars until 1938, when he was officially hired by Alfa as head of their racing department.
In 1940, upon learning of the company's plan to absorb his beloved Scuderia and take control of his racing efforts, he quit Alfa. Because he was prohibited by contract from racing for several years, the Scuderia briefly became Auto Avio Costruzioni Ferrari, which ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. Ferrari did in fact produce one racecar, the Tipo 815, in the non-competition period; it was thus the first actual Ferrari car, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since. The factory was bombed in 1944 and rebuilt in 1946 to include a works for road car production.
"Scuderia Ferrari" literally means "Ferrari Stable" in keeping with the prancing horse emblem; the name is figuratively translated as "Team Ferrari."
The first Ferrari road car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine; Enzo reluctantly built and sold his automobiles to fund the Scuderia. While his beautiful and blazingly fast cars quickly gained a reputation for excellence, Enzo maintained a famous distaste for his customers, most of whom he felt were buying his cars for the prestige and not the performance value.
Ferrari road cars, noted for their exquisite styling by design houses such as Pininfarina, have long been one of the ultimate accessories for the rich and young (or young-at-heart). Other design houses that have done work for Ferrari over the years include Scaglietti, Bertone, Touring, Ghia, and Vignale.
Ferrari cars feature highly-tuned small V8 and V12 engines, often in a mid-engined configuration; until the introduction of fuel injection in the 1980s, they were quite temperamental. Until the mid-1980s they carried a reputation for unreliability and bad engineering, though these were written off by enthusiasts as "character." Ferrari owners have famously and religiously defended the merits of their cars while virulently criticizing other brands.
Main article: Scuderia Ferrari
Enzo Ferrari's true passion, despite his extensive road car business, was always auto racing. His Scuderia started as an independent sponsor for drivers in various cars, but soon became the Alfa Romeo in-house racing team. After Ferrari's departure from Alfa, he began to design and produce cars of his own; the Ferrari team first appeared on the European grand prix scene after the end of World War II.
The Scuderia joined the Formula One World Championship in the first year of its existence, 1950. José Froilán González gave the team its first victory at the 1951 British Grand Prix. Alberto Ascari gave Ferrari its first World Championship a year later. Ferrari is the oldest team left in the championship, not to mention the most successful: the team holds nearly every Formula One record. As of 2004, the team's records include fourteen World Drivers Championship titles (1952, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1961, 1964, 1975, 1977, 1979, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004), fourteen World Constructors Championship titles (1961, 1964, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004, 179 grand prix victories, 3445 and a half points, 544 podium finishes, 174 pole positions, 11,182 laps led, and 180 fastest laps in 1622 grands prix contested.
Famous drivers include Tazio Nuvolari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Alberto Ascari, Phil Hill, Mike Hawthorn, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Gilles Villeneuve, Nigel Mansell, Alain Prost and Michael Schumacher.
Complete List of racing drivers
|The Prancing Horse|
The famous symbol of Ferrari is a black prancing horse on yellow background, usually with the letters S F for Scuderia Ferrari.
The horse was originally the symbol of Count Francesco Baracca, a legendary "asso" (ace) of the Italian air force during World War I, who painted it on the side of his planes. Baracca died very young on June 19, 1918, shot down after 34 victorious duels and many team victories; he soon became a national hero.
Baracca had wanted the prancing horse on his planes because his squad, the "Battaglione Aviatori", was enrolled in a Cavalry regiment (air forces were at their first years of life and had no separate administration), and also because he himself was reputed to be the best cavaliere of his team.
It has been supposed that the choice of a horse was perhaps partly due to the fact that his noble family was known for having many horses on their estates at Lugo di Romagna. Another theory suggests Baracca copied the rampant horse design from a shot down German pilot who had the emblem of the city of Stuttgart on his plane. This is supported by the evidence that Barraca's horse looks more similar to the one of Stuttgart (not changed since 1938) than the current Ferrari design, especially as the legs of the horses are concerned.
Interestingly, rivalling German sports car manufacturer Porsche designed its logo by embeddeding the prancing horse logo of Stuttgart into the emblem of the state of Württemberg, just like the city is placed within the state. In the 1920s, Ferdinand Porsche had constructed supercharged cars for Mercedes-Benz in Stuttgart before starting his own engineering company there in the 1930s, designing the Auto Union race cars, amongst others.
Curiously, the name Stuttgart is derived from Stutengarten, an ancient form of the modern German word Gestüt, which translates into English as stud farm and into Italian as scuderia. In turn, the Italians call Stuttgart Stoccarda. Obviously, the Ferrari-led Alfa team often met the Silver Arrow teams of Mercedes-Benz (from Stuttgart itself) and later Auto Union at race tracks in the 1920s and 30s, so each knew of the other.
On June 17, 1923, Enzo Ferrari won a race at the Savio track in Ravenna where he met the Countess Paolina, mother of Baracca. The Countess asked that he use the horse on his cars, suggesting that it would grant him good luck, but the first race at which Alfa would let him use the horse on Scuderia cars was eleven years later at SPA 24 Hours in 1932. Ferrari won.
The prancing horse has not always been uniquely identified with the Ferrari brand: Fabio Taglioni used it on his Ducati motorbikes. Taglioni's father was, in fact, a companion of Baracca's and fought with him in the 91st Air Squad. But, as Ferrari's fame grew, Ducati abandoned the horse; this may have been the result of a private agreement between the two brands.
The prancing horse is now a trademark of Ferrari.
Until the mid-1990s, Ferrari followed a three-number naming scheme based on engine displacement:
- V6 and V8 models used the total displacement (in deciliters) for the first two digits and the number of cylinders as the third. Thus, the 206 was a 2.0L V6-powered vehicle, while the 348 used a 3.4L V8.
- V12 models used the displacement per cylinder (in cubic centimeters) for all three digits. Therefore, the famed 365 Daytona had a 4380cc engine (365 times 12).
Most Ferraris were also given designations referring to their body style. In general, the following conventions were used:
- M standing for "Modificata," this suffix is placed to the end of a model's number designation to denote that it is a modified version of its predecessor and not a complete evolution (see F512M and 575M Maranello).
- GTB models are closed Berlinettas, or coupes
- GTS models, in older models, are convertibles (see 365 GTS4); however, in late models, this suffix is used for targa top models (see 348 GTS, and F355 GTS; exception being the 348 TS, which is the only targa named differently). The convertible models now use the suffix "Spider" (see F355 Spider, and Ferrari 360 Spider).
This naming system can be confusing, as some entirely different vehicles used the same engine type and body style. Many Ferraris also had other names affixed (like Daytona) to identify them further. Many such names are actually not the car's official name given by the factory. The 365 GTB4 model only became known as a Daytona after racing variants run by N.A.R.T. (North American Racing Team, who raced Ferrari's in America) won the famous 24 hour race of the same name. As well, the 250 GTO's famous acronym, which means Gran Turismo Omologato, was simply a name the Italian press gave the car which referred to the way Ferrari had, in a sense, avoided the rules and successfully homologated the car for racing purposes (Ferrari had convinced the FIA, somehow, someway, that the 250 GTO was the same car as previous 250's). This was done probably to avoid confusion with the multiple 250 models which were produced before the GTO.
Road Models and Photos by Year
|Ferrari timeline, 1948-1967||Ferrari road car timeline 1960s-1990s >|
|Sports||125 S||166 S+166 SC||195 S||212 Exp||225 S||250 MM||250 Monza||250 GT Tour de France||250 GT SWB||250 GTO||250 LM|
|159 S||250 S||250 Export|
|GT||166 Inter||195 Inter||212 Inter||250 Europa||250 GT Europa||250 GT Boano||250 GT Ellena||250 GT Coupe PF||250 GT Lusso||330 GTC||365 GTC|
|275 GTB||275 GTB/4|
|Spyder/Cabriolet||250 GT||275 GTS||330 GTS||365 GTS|
|2 plus 2||250 GT/E||330 GT||365 GT|
|America||340||375 America/MM||410 Superamerica||400 Superamerica||500 Superfast||365 California|
|< Ferrari timeline 1948–1967||Ferrari timeline 1960s-1990s||Ferrari timeline 1990–Present >|
|8 cylinder||Mid-engine berlinetta||308||308 i||308 QV||328||348||360|
|208||208 Turbo||GTB/GTS Turbo||F355|
|Mid-engine 2+2||308 GT4||Mondial 8||Mondial QV||Mondial 3.2||Mondial t|
|12 cylinder||Boxer berlinetta||365 BB||512 BB||512i BB||Testarossa||512TR||F512M|
|Grand tourer||250||275|| 365 GTB/4
|2+2 coupé||250 GT/E||330 GT 2+2||365 GT 2+2||365GTC/4||GT4 2+2||400||400 i||412||456||456 M|
|Supercar||250 GTO||250 LM|| 288
|Sold under the Dino marque until 1976; see also Ferrari Dino|
|< Ferrari timeline 1967–1990||Ferrari timeline 1990s-Present|
|V8|| Rear mid-engine
|Challenge Stradale||430 Scuderia||458 Speciale|
|2+2 grand tourer||GTC4Lusso T|
|V12||Grand tourer||550 Maranello||575M Maranello||599 GTB Fiorano||F12berlinetta||812 Superfast|
|550 Barchetta||575 Superamerica||599 SA Aperta/599 GTO||F60 America/F12tdf|
|2+2 grand tourer||456||456 M||612 Scaglietti||FF||GTC4Lusso|
|Programma FXX||FXX||599XX||FXX K|
Car Info and Pics by Groupings
|1948-1950 166 | 1951 195 Coupe | 1951-1952 212 Coupe/Cabriolet | 1952 340 MM Berlinetta/Spider | 1953 625 TF|
|The Dino was the first mid-engined Ferrari. This layout would go on to be used in most Ferraris ofthe 1980s and 1990s. V6 and V8 Ferrari models make up well over half of the marque's total production.|
|1968-1975 Dino | 1968-1973 Dino 206GT | 1968-1973 Dino 246GT/GTS | 1975-1989 208/308/328 GTB/GTS | 1975 308 GTB/GTS | 1980 208 GTB/GTS | 1980 308 GTBi/GTSi | 1982 208 GTB/GTS Turbo | 1982 308 GTB/GTS Quattrovalvole | 1985 328 GTB Berlinetta | 1986 GTB/GTS Turbo | 1989 348 | 1989 348 TB/TS | 1993 348 GTB/GTS | 1995-1998 F355 | 1994 F355/GTS | 1997 355 F1 | 1999-2004 360 Modena/Spider | 2003-2004 Challenge Stradale | 2005 F430|
|2-seat Gran Turismo|
|Ferrari quickly moved into the Gran Turismo market, and the bulk of the company's sales remain in this area.|
|1952-1967 America | 1952 340 America | 1953 375 America | 1956 410 superamerica | 1957 410 superamerica III | 1960 400 superamerica | 1964 500 Superfast | 1966 365 California | 1953-1962 250 | 1952 250S/250MM | 1953 250 Export/Europa | 1954-1963 250 GT Europa/Boano/Ellena/Coupe Pininfarina/Lusso | 1957-1960 250 GT Berlinetta/Cabriolet/California Spyder/SWB | 1964 330 | 1966 330 GTC Coupe | 1966 330 GTS Spider | 1964-1968 275 | 1964-1965 275 GTB/GTS | 1966-1968 275 GTB/4 | 1968 365 | 1968-1969 365 GTC Coupe | 1969-1970 365 GTS Spider | 1968-1973 Daytona | 1968 365 GTB4/365 GTS4 | 1996-2001 550 Maranello | 1996-2000 550 Maranello Coupe | 2001 550 Barchetta | 2002-2004 575M Maranello | 2004 Barchetta | 2005 Ferrari Superamerica | 2006 Ferrari 600 Imola | 2007 599 GTB|
|For a time, Ferrari built 2+2 versions of its mid-engined V8 cars. Although they looked quite different from their 2-seat counterparts, both the GT4 and Mondial were very closely-related to the 308 GTB.|
|1974-1980 208/308 GT4 | 1974-1975 Dino 308GT4 | 1976-1980 308GT4 | 1975 208 GT4 | 1980 Mondial | 1980 Mondial 8 | 1982 Mondial Quattrovalvole | 1983 Mondial Cabriolet | 1985 3.2 Mondial/3.2 Cabriolet | 1989 Mondial T|
|The company has also produced front-engined 2+2 cars, culminating in the current 612 Scaglietti.|
|1960-1963 250 | 1960-1963 250 GT 2+2 | 1964-1967 330 | 1964-1967 330 GT 2+2 | 1967-1971 365 | 1967-1971 365 GT 2+2 | 1968-1973 365 Daytona | 1971-1972 365 GTC4 | 1972-1976 365 GT4 2+2 | 1976-1989 400/412 | 1976 400 Automatic | 1979 400i | 1985 412 | 1992-2003 456/456M | 1992-1997 456 GT/GTA Coupe | 1998-2003 456M GT Coupe | 2004-2005 612 Scaglietti|
|Ferrari entered the mid-engined 12-cylinder fray with the flattened Berlinetta Boxer in 1971. The later Testarossa remains one of the most famous Ferraris.|
|1971-1984 512 Berlinetta Boxer | 1971 365 GT4 BB | 1976 512BB | 1981 512iBB | 1984-1996 Testarossa | 1984-1992 Testarossa | 1992-1994 512TR | 1994-1996 F512M|
|1962 250 GTO | 1984 288 GTO | 1988-1992 F40 | 1995-1997 F50 | 2003 Enzo Ferrari|
|Possible Ferrari SUV?|
|Future Concept Models|
|Ferrari 575 GTZ Zagato|
|360 GTC | Challenge | 575 GTC | FXX|
|1940 AAC 815 | 1947 125 Sport | 1947 159 Sport | 1948 166 S/SC/MM | 1950 195 S | 1951 340 America | 1951 212 Export | 1952 225 S | 1952 250 S | 1952 340 Mexico | 1953 250 MM | 1953 Ferrari-Abarth 166 MM/53 | 1953 625 TF | 1953 735 S | 1953 500 Mondial | 1953 340 MM | 1953 375 MM | 1954 750 Monza | 1954 250 Monza | 1954 375 Plus | 1955 118 LM | 1955 121 LM | 1955 410 S | 1956 500 TR | 1956 290 MM | 1956 290 S | 1956 860 Monsza | 1956 625 LM | 1957 500 TRC | 1957 315 S | 1957 335 S | 1957 250 Testa Rossa | 1960 250 TR60/61 | 1962 GTO | 1962 250 GTO | 1963 330 LMB | 1963 P/LM series | 1963 250 P | 1964 250 LM | 1964 330 P | 1965 330 P2 | 1966 330 P3 | 1967 330 P4 | 1967 412 P | 1969 312 P | 1969 512 S and 512 M | 1971 312 PB | 1994 333 SP | 1995 F50 GT | 2003 Enzo | 2005 FXX|
|1948 125 F1 | 1950 275 F1 | 1950 340 F1 | 1950 375 F1 | 1954 553 F1 | 1954 625 F1 | 1955 555 F1 | 1955 Ferrari-Lancia D50 | 1957 801 F1 | 1958 412 MI | 1958 246 F1 | 1959 256 F1 | 1961 156 F1 | 1964 158 F1 | 1964 512 F1 | 1966 312 F1 | 1970 312 B | 1971 312 B2 | 1973 312 B3 | 1975 312 T | 1976 312 T2 | 1978 312 T3 | 1979 312 T4 | 1980 312 T5 | 1981 126 C | 1982 126 C2 | 1983 126 C3 | 1984 126 C4 | 1985 156/85 | 1986 F1/86 | 1987 F1/87 | 1988 F1/88 | 1989 F1/89 | 1990 F1 641 | 1991 F1 642 | 1991 F1 643 | 1992 F 92 A | 1993 F 93 A | 1994 412 T1/T1B | 1995 412 T2 | 1996 F 310 | 1997 F 310 B | 1998 F 300 | 1999 F 399 | 2000 F2000 | 2001 F2001 | 2002 F2002 | 2003 F2003-GA | 2004 F2004 | 2005 F2005|
|1948 125 F2 | 1951 500 F2 | 1953 553 F2 | 1957 Dino 156 F2 | 1967 Dino 166 F2|
|Fiat Group brands|
|Abarth | Alfa Romeo | Autobianchi | Ferrari | Fiat | Lancia | Innocenti | Maserati|
Concept Cars by Italdesign
Designs by Pininfarina
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