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Forced induction


Forced induction is a term used to describe internal combustion engines that are not naturally aspirated. Instead, a gas compressor is added to the air intake, thereby increasing the quantity of oxygen available for combustion. This compressed air is normally referred to as Boost or charge air.

Introduction

Forced induction can be used to increase the power of an engine or its efficiency, or both, without much extra weight. The ambient air that the engine is normally ingesting enters the compressor inlet of turbocharger or supercharger that is inline along the air intake tract. This effectively increases the pressure and density of the air, which allows for a much greater percentage of oxygen per volume of air intake to be added to the air/fuel mixture. The effects are an increase to the effective capacity of the engine without an increase in physical size. The forced induction approach has the advantage that the intake pressure may be regulated according to the engine speed, thus providing power from extra capacity at high speed, but without wasting fuel at lower speeds. A Nitrous Oxide system is not a form of forced induction. It's simply an oxidizer that is injected either directly (direct port) or by a single fogger...with fuel(wet nitrous system) or without fuel(dry nitrous system).

Two of the commonly used forced induction technologies are turbochargers and superchargers. They differ mainly in the power source for the compressor. Turbochargers are driven by the exhaust gases of the engine, whereas superchargers are driven by a geartrain or belt connected to the crankshaft of the engine.

Comparison

Strengths and weaknesses vary according to the method of forcing induction largely based upon the inherent design functions of both. A turbocharger acts as an obstacle to exhaust gases due to its placement in the exhaust system tract. A supercharger uses torque generated from the rotational mass internal to the engine through the crank pulley. A turbo relies on the volume and velocity of exhaust gases to spool, or spin the turbine wheel. The turbine wheel is connected to the compressor wheel via a common shaft. The compressor wheel compresses the intake charge increasing the charge density by a large factor. The amount of time that it takes a turbocharger to reach the onset of boost is referred to as lag. A supercharger is 'on' all of the time, meaning that it is capable of producing a linear increase of boost up until redline. It is easier to target a desired boost with a turbocharger as there are many forms of boost controllers that allow a user to adjust to desired boost fairly easily. In order to achieve desired boost with a supercharger, a larger or smaller pulley must be installed.

Intercooling

A fundamental principle to forced induction is that compressing air raises its temperature. As a result, the charge density is reduced and the cylinders receive less fresh air than the system’s boost pressure prescribes. The risk of pre-ignition or "knock" in internal combustion engines greatly increases. These drawbacks are countered by charge-air cooling, which passes the air leaving the turbocharger or supercharger through a heat exchanger typically called an intercooler. This is done by cooling the charge air with an ambient flow of either air (air-air intercoolers) or liquid (liquid to air intercoolers), the charge air density is increased and the temperature is reduced.

Alcohol/Water Injection

Additionally, alcohol injection is an effective means of cooling the charge air. Methanol is the preferred alcohol due to its elemental properties, and is normally mixed with water to prevent evaporation. Methanol is typically injected pre-throttle body. Methanol, unlike nitrous oxide or forced induction itself, doesn't add more oxygen to the charge, but by its low evaporation point changes from a liquid to a gas as it is introduced into the air charge. The evaporation process uses the heat from the intake charge to complete the phase change. The alcohol is also a fuel in the charge which will cause a rich condition if used in excess. Due to the lower intake temperatures and denser air charge more power is exerted from the engine. Methanol is typically used in conjunction with poor quality fuel(pump gas) in order to run higher than normal boost pressures.


Like was stated above, adding forced induction increases the amount of air an engine can use for combustion, in effect allowing more fuel to be used with the available oxygen. Further, it increases an engine's dynamic compression ratio. As compression ratio increases, so does the threat of knock and therefore the need for higher octane fuel.