Ferrari Dino engine
Alfredo "Dino" Ferrari, was the son of Enzo Ferrari. Dino suggested to Enzo Ferrari the development of a V6 engine for F2 at the end of 1955. Soon afterwards, Alfredo fell ill, suffering from muscular dystrophy. While in hospital, he discussed technical details with the engineer Vittorio Jano. Dino would never see the engine; he died on June 30, 1956 at the age of 24.
The production Dino V6 began as a discussion between Vittorio Jano and Enzo and Dino Ferrari about the ideal 1.5 L engine for use in the 1958 Formula 2 auto racing series. Jano, formerly of Alfa Romeo and Lancia, pressed for a conventional 60° V6 but the Ferraris were open-minded.
Jano's 60° design incorporated some of his ideas from the Lancia Aurelia, and were used in a number of Formula 1, Formula 2, and Grand Prix cars from 1959 through the early 1960s. Appearing in 1958, it used a 77x71 mm bore and stroke for 1984 cc and produced 200 hp (149 kW) in the 196 S. Two larger versions were also produced, the 245 hp (183 kW) 2497 cc 246 S and 296 hp (221 kW) 2962 cc 296 S. These engines continued in the 1962 196 SP and 286 SP. The latter had a 90 mm bore and 75 mm stroke for 2863 cc and 260 hp (194 kW).
This engine was so small that very little room was available for smooth intake tracts. The Ferraris were convinced that a freer-flowing intake could result in more power, so a new design was called for.
Ferrari designers began work on the first Dino V6 engine in 1956 and the engine was running by the end of the year. The engine displaced 1489 cc. This engine was installed in the Ferrari 156 F2 car and was first raced in the Grand Prix of Naples in April 1957, where it finished in third place behind two Lancia-Ferrari V8 Formula One cars.
The result of the trios creativity was the world's only 65° V6 engine. The extra 5° between cylinder banks gave Ferrari the straight intakes he wanted, but resulted in an odd 185°/55° crankshaft for even firing. Although the Dino V6 was discontinued with the introduction of the V8, the 65° design continues to this day: It reappeared on Ferrari's 1992 456 V12.
The 85x71 mm 2417 cc engine used in the 246 S/I produced 280 hp (209 kW) with dual overhead camshafts pushing two valves per cylinder. The mid-engined 1961 246 SP used this same engine, as did the 156 F1.
The 65° Dino V6 quickly replaced the 60° unit in racing, and made its way to the street as well. Ferrari needed to have the engine in 500 production vehicles to homologate it for racing use. The company worked with Fiat to develop a sports car to house it, and the front-engined Fiat Dino project was born.
In competition, the 1965 166 P used a tiny 1.6 L (1593 cc) version of the 65° unit. Both bore and stroke were different from the earlier engine at 77x57 mm and output was impressive at 175 hp (130 kW). Bore was up to 86 mm for the 218 hp (163 kW) 1987 cc version found that same year in the 206 SP as well as the 1966 206 S.
In 1968, Ferrari debuted its own Dino 206, the company's first mid-engined road car. It used the 2.0 L engine from the 206 SP mounted transversely between the rear wheels. After producing just 157 cars, Ferrari bumped the bore and stroke up from 86x57 mm to 92.5x60 mm for 2419 cc. This increased power to 195 hp (145 kW), but the engine block was now made of cast iron rather than aluminium.
- 2.0 L
- 2.4 L
Dino's project also created a V8 engine with a conventional 90° bank angle. First appearing in 1962's 268 SP, the new V8 used the same 77x71 mm bore and stroke as the Colombo V12. Output from the single overhead camshaft engine was 265 hp (198 kW). A smaller version was also produced, with stroke dropped to 66 mm for 2459 cc. This engine was used in the 248 SP and produced about 250 hp (186 kW).
The Dino V8 (now bored to 81 mm) replaced the V6 in the next line of street Dinos to be produced by Ferrari, the 1973 GT4 and 1975 GTB "308" cars. As the model name suggests, the V8 displaced 3.0 L (2927 cc) and was another DOHC 2-valve design.
- 1973–1976 308 GT4 (branded "Dino")
- 1976–1980 308 GT4 (branded "Ferrari")
- 1975–1980 308 GTB
- 1977–1980 308 GTS
That same year, the company introduced the 208 with a tiny 2.0 L version. The bore was reduced from 81 to 66.8 mm but the stroke remained at 71 mm. Output was reduced as well, from 255 to 180 hp (190 to 134 kW) and the 2-liter Dino was not offered in Ferrari's most important market, the United States.
The 2.0 L V8 was bored out a bit (to 68.8 mm) for 1980's 1991 cc 208, but it was the 1982 introduction of the 208 Turbo that caused a stir. The 208 Turbo featured 220 hp (164 kW), more than the fuel injected 308 from the previous year.
A very unusual Dino Quattrovalvole was used in the Lancia Thema 8.32. It was based on the 308 QV's engine, but used a split-plane crankshaft rather than the Ferrari-type flat-plane. The engine was constructed by Ducati rather than Ferrari, and was produced from 1986 through 1991.
The Quattrovalvole was also used by Lancia for their attempt at the World Sportscar Championship with the LC2. The engine was twin-turbocharged and destroked to 2.65 litres, but produced 720 hp in qualifying trim. The engine was later increased to 3.0 litres and increased power output to 828 hp.
The turbo also served as a development platform for the forthcoming 1984 288 GTO supercar. That famous Ferrari was meant for Group B racing, with a 2855 cc version of the 308's engine (bore was down by 1 mm to meet the regulations of the class). With two IHI turbos, a Behr intercooler, and Weber-Marelli fuel injection, the GTO boasted 400 hp (298 kW) from Dino's engine.
- 1984–1985 "288" GTO
In 1987, the F40 supercar debuted with the Tipo F120A engine. The 2936 cc Dino-based engine now had an 82 mm bore and 69.5 mm stroke and 16 psi of turbo boost for 478 hp (356 kW). The F40 sold well, but was the last Dino-powered supercar.
- 1987–1992 F40
The 1989 introduction of the 348 and Mondial t saw the Dino V8 pushed to 3.4 L (3405 cc) with an 85 mm bore and 75 mm stroke. Power was up to 300 hp (224 kW) in that 288-based car. This version was known internally as the Tipo F119.
The 1994 F355 included their first production 5-valve engine, and sported a 2 mm longer stroke for 3496 cc and 400 hp (283 kW). This Tipo F129B was used from 1994 through 1998. It was revised as the Tipo F129C, debuting in 1998 and used through 1999.
- Tipo F129B
- Tipo F129C
The 1999 360 Modena retained the 85 mm bore of the F355 engine, but increased the stroke to 79 mm, to raise the displacement again to 3586 cc and 400 hp (298 kW). Modifications to the intake/exhaust and an increased 11.2:1 compression ratio produced 425 hp (317 kW) for the 360 Challenge Stradale. This Tipo F131 was produced from 1999 through 2004.
- 1999–2004 360
The Dino V8 was retired in 2004 with the introduction of the F430's new engine. As the name implies, this new engine is up to 4.3 L (4308 cc) with a 92 mm bore and 81 mm stroke, and is related to the new 4.2 L Maserati V8.
The V12 variant of the Dino V6 debuted in the 1992 456 as the Tipo F116B. It is a 65° engine with an 88 mm bore and the same 75 mm stroke as the Dino V8 found in the 348. Total displacement is 5.5 L (5474 cc) for 436 hp (325 kW). A later Tipo F116C version replaced the B in 1998 and lasted through 2002.
The same displacement produced 485 hp (362 kW) in the 1996 550 Maranello's Tipo F133A (later the Tipo F133C). The 5.5 L V12 engine won the "over 4 liter" class of the International Engine of the Year award for 2000 and 2001.
The F50 supercar bowed in 1995 with another Dino V12, based on the 1990 3.5 L Formula 1 engine. With an 85 mm bore and 69 mm stroke, it mimicked the high-revving oversquare dimensions of the F40's V8, but with 4.7 L, it didn't need a turbo to produce 520 hp (388 kW). Variable length intake manifolds were used, as was 5-valve technology.
The 2002 575 M and 2004 612 Scaglietti shared a 5748 cc version of the Dino V12 known as the Tipo F133E. Bore was up to 89 mm and stroke matched the F355 V8 at 77 mm. Output was 515 hp (384 kW) for the 575M and 533 hp (412 kW) for the 612.
The supercar V12 was reborn again for the 2003 Enzo. Bore was the same as the F430 V8 at 92 mm, and stroke was up to 75.2 mm for 5998 cc total displacement. Variable valve timing was added on both intake and exhaust. Normally-aspirated once again, the Enzo produced 660 CV (485 kW), the highest output ever for a non-forced induction engine.
The 2007 599 GTB uses a version of the Enzo's Tipo F140 engine with 5999 cc known as the Tipo F133F. Output is 620 CV (612 hp/456 kW) at 7600 rpm with 608 N·m (448 ft·lbf) of torque at 5600 rpm. The engine is modified so that it can sit lower in the front engine bay of the 599 GTB and is claimed by Ferrari to be the most powerful V12 they have ever put into a series production vehicle.
The Dino-based V12 is set to be replaced by an all-new V12 engine based on the shared Ferrari/Maserati V8 in the later part of this decade.
- F116B 5474 cc
- 1992–1997 456
- F116C 5474 cc
- 1998–2003 456 M
- F133C 5474 cc
- 1996–2002 550
- F133E 5748 cc
- F133F 5999 cc
- 2006–present 599 GTB
- F140 5998 cc
- Fitzgerald, Merritt and Thompson, Ferrari The Sports and Gran Turismo Cars, Fourth Edition, 1979, ISBN 0-85059-426-X