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Maserati Biturbo

Maserati 222SE
Maserati Biturbo
Manufacturer Maserati
Parent company Fiat Group (since 1993)
Production 1981-1994
Body style 2-door coupé
4-door sedan
2-door cabriolet
Class Sports / Luxury
Engine 2.0L, 2.5L, and 2.8L V6, twin turbocharged
Platform
Layout FR layout
Transmission 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Predecessor Maserati Merak
Wheelbase 251cm (Coupé)
260cm (Sedan, 228)
240cm (Spyder)
Length 415cm (Coupé)
440cm(Sedan)
404cm (Spyder)
445cm (228)
Width 171cm (Coupé, Spyder)
173cm (Sedan)
186cm (228)
Height 131cm (Coupé, Spyder, 228)
136cm (Sedan)
Successor Shamal and Ghibli II
Similar BMW 3 Series
Designer Pierangelo Andreani


The Maserati Biturbo is a sports car introduced by Maserati in 1981. The Biturbo was a two-door, four-seater notchback coupé featuring, as the name implies, a two-litre V-6 engine with two turbochargers (of somewhat smaller dimensions than the BMW 3 Series (E21) cars of the time) and a luxurious interior. The car was designed by Pierangelo Andreani, an engineer from the De Tomaso team, somehow influenced by the design of the newer Quattroporte III (Italdesign Giugiaro), as it can be noticed on the front fascia.

Export versions came initially with a 2.5L V6, after 1989 it was enlarged to 2.8 Litres, while for Italy a two-litre high-performance version was originally produced (to avoid the 38% sales tax imposed at the time on cars displacing more than 2000 cc). The aluminum 90 degree SOHC V6 engine was roughly based on the 2.0L Merak engine. Itself based on earlier V8 Formula One Maserati engines, designed by Giulio Alfieri (1924 - 2002). The carbureted 2.5L engine 185hp and Template:Auto ftlbf of torque in North American spec and slightly more elsewhere. Fuel injection was fitted in 1987 raising power to 187hp. In 1989 the 2.8L engine bumped power to 225hp and 246ftlbf of torque for North America and 250hp for Europe.

All Maserati models from the Biturbo's introduction in 1981 until 1997 (except the Quattroporte) were based on the original Biturbo architecture, among them the four-door 420/425 and 4.24v, the Spyder, the Karif , the 228 and 2.24v, the Maserati Racing and the later Shamal and Ghibli II.


History

When Alessandro de Tomaso acquired Maserati in 1976, he had ambitious plans for the marque. His plan was to combine the prestige of the Maserati brand with a sports car that would be more affordable than the earlier high-priced models that had traditionally made up the Maserati range. In fact, Maserati ceased making supercars like the ones developed under Citroën ownership altogether, like the Bora and Khamsin.

The Biturbo was initially a strong seller and brought Italian prestige to a wide audience, with sales of about 40,000 units. Sales figures fell in subsequent years, until de Tomaso sold the company out to Fiat. It did not cure the problem.

It is #28 in the BBC book of "Crap Cars".

It reflects that the maintenance of such small, high performance engines require professional attention. Too many of these cars have been used on a "run to fail" mode which had dramatic impact on their life expectancy and thus their image. Specific output of these engines in their later road configuration was in the range of 145 to 165 hp/l, one of the highest in its category.

The Biturbo competed unsuccessfully in the British Touring Car Championship in the late 1980s, the European Touring Car Championship and the World Touring Car Championship (1987).


Biturbo Engines

The Maserati Biturbo was the first ever production biturbo engine. The 2 liter version featured wet aluminium sleeves coated with Nikasil. The last street version featured over 150 hp/liter and 140ftlbf/liter torque.

A V6 1996 cc DOHC 36 valve engine has been developed but never reach manufacturing

Série Displacement Head Fuel system Model
AM 452 2000 cc 18 valves carburator Biturbo, Biturbo S
AM 453 2500 cc 18 valves carburator Biturbo 2500
AM 470 2000 cc 18 valves injection Biturbo i
AM 471 2000 cc 18 valves injection Si, 2.22S, 2.22SR, 4.18, 4.30, Spyder
AM 472 2500 cc 18 valves injection Biturbo 2500i
AM 473 2800 cc 18 valves injection 4.30, 222SR, Spyder, Karif
AM 475 2000 cc 24 valves injection 2.24, 4.24, Spyder
AM 490 2000 cc 24 valves injection Racing, Barchetta Stradale
AM 495 2000 cc 24 valves injection Ghibli II
AM 496 2000 cc 24 valves injection Ghibli Cup
AM 477 2800 cc 24 valves injection 2.22 4V, 430 4V, Ghibli II
AM 501 2000 cc 24 valves injection Barchetta Corsa


Biturbo

Maserati Biturbo S in Alberobello, Italy.
Maserati 222E
Maserati 222SE

The first Biturbo version was introduced in December 1981, a two door coupe. The Biturbo name disappeared with update in 1988 and after 1994 was introduced Ghibli II.


Versions:

Model Years Engine Displacement Power Fuel system Notes
Biturbo 1982-85 V6 ohc 1995 cc 180 hp carburetor, turbo Only Italy
Biturbo E 1983-85 V6 ohc 2491 cc 185 hp carburetor, turbo
Biturbo S 1983-85 V6 ohc 1995 cc 205 hp carburetor, turbo Only Italy
Biturbo 2.5 S 1984-87 V6 ohc 2491 cc 196 hp carburetor, turbo Catalysator
Biturbo 1985-87 V6 ohc 1995 cc 180 hp carburetor, turbo Only Italy
Biturbo 2.5 E 1985-88 V6 ohc 2491 cc 185 hp carburetor, turbo Catalysator
Biturbo S 1985-86 V6 ohc 1995 cc 210 hp carburetor, turbo Only Italy
Biturbo i 1986-90 V6 ohc 1995 cc 185 hp Fuel injection, turbo Only Italy
Biturbo Si 1987-88 V6 ohc 1995 cc 220 hp Fuel injection, turbo Only Italy
Biturbo 2.5 Si 1987-88 V6 ohc 2491 cc 188 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator
2.24V 1988-92 V6 dohc 1996 cc 245 hp Fuel injection, turbo Only Italy
222 4v 1988-91 V6 dohc 2790 cc 279 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator
222 E 1988-90 V6 ohc 2790 cc 225 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator
222 SE 1990-91 V6 ohc 2790 cc 250 hp Fuel injection, turbo
222 SE 1990-91 V6 ohc 2790 cc 225 hp Fuel injection, turbo [[Catalysator
2.24V 1991-93 V6 dohc 1996 cc 245 hp Fuel injection, turbo Only Italy
2.24V 1991-93 V6 dohc 1996 cc 240 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator, Only Italy
222 SR 1991-93 V6 ohc 2790 cc 225 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator
Racing 1991-91 V6 dohc 1996 cc 285 hp Fuel injection, turbo

See also:Maserati Racing


420/425/430

Maserati Biturbo: A four door variant was introduced in 1983
Maserati 430

Two years after Biturbo introduction was unveiled foor door family version. This version has longer wheelbase, 2.6 metres ({{rnd/cExpression error: Unexpected < operator.decExpression error: Unexpected < operator.|Expression error: Unexpected < operator.|(Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "[".)}} in)Template:Convert/test/A. The four door version was replaced in 1994 with Maserati Quattroporte IV.


Versions:

Model Years Engine Displacement Power Fuel system Notes
425 1983-89 V6 ohc 2491 cc 200 hp carburetor, turbo
420 1985-88 V6 ohc 1995 cc 180 hp carburetor, turbo Only Italy
420i 1986-88 V6 ohc 1995 cc 190 hp Fuel injection, turbo
420 S 1986-88 V6 ohc 1995 cc 210 hp carburetor, turbo Only Italy
430 1987-90 V6 ohc 2790 cc 225 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator
425i 1987-90 V6 ohc 2491 cc 188 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator
422 1988-90 V6 dohc 1996 cc 220 hp Fuel injection]], turbo Catalysator
4.18v 1990-94 V6 ohc 1995 cc 220 hp Fuel injection]], turbo Catalysator
4.24v 1990-92 V6 dohc 1996 cc 245 hp Fuel injection, turbo Only Italy
4.24v II 1991-94 V6 dohc 1996 cc 240 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator
430 4v 1991-94 V6 dohc 2790 cc 279 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator

See also:Maserati 420


Spyder

Maserati Biturbo Spyder i

1986 Maserati Biturbo Spider


The Spyder version was introduced in Turin Motor Show in 1984. The car was designed and built by Zagato. The Spyder version has shorter wheelbase, 2.4m.


Versions:

Model Years Engine Displacement Power Fuel system Notes
Spyder 1984-88 V6 ohc 1995 cc 180 hp carburetor Only Italy
Spyder 2.5 1984-88 V6 ohc 2491 cc 192 hp carburetor, turbo Catalysator
Spyder i 1986-87 V6 dohc 1996 cc 185 hp Fuel injection, turbo
Spyder i 1987-88 V6 dohc 1996 cc 195 hp Fuel injection, turbo
Spyder 2.5i 1988-89 V6 ohc 2491 cc 188 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator
Spyder 2.8i 1989-91 V6 ohc 2790 cc 250 hp Fuel injection, turbo
Spyder 2.8i 1989-91 V6 ohc 2790 cc 225 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator
Spyder i 1989-91 V6 dohc 1996 cc 220 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator, Only Italy
Spyder III 1991-94 V6 dohc 1996 cc 245 hp Fuel injection, turbo Only Italy
Spyder III 2.8 1991-94 V6 dohc 2790 cc 225 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator
Spyder III 1991-94 V6 dohc 1996 cc 240 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator, Only Italy


228

The Maserati 228 is two door Gran turismo-version, it was meant to same markets as earlier 3500 GT and Mexico. The 228 was introduced in Turin Motor Show in 1986, it was built longer four door chassis and has bigger 2.8 litre biturbo engine. The 228 was built 469 copies until 1992.

Versions:

Model Years Engine Displacement Power Fuel system Notes
228 1986-92 V6 ohc 2790 cc 250 hp Fuel injection, turbo
228 1986-92 V6 ohc 2790 cc 225 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator
222 1988-92 V6 dohc 1996 cc 220 hp Fuel injection, turbo Catalysator, Only Italy

1989 Maserati 228

References


Maserati
1950-1969 A6 | 3500 | 5000 GT | Mistral | Quattroporte I | Sebring | Mexico | Ghibli I
1970-1979 Khamsin | Bora | Indy | Merak | Quattroporte II | Quattroporte III | Kyalami
1980-1999 Biturbo | Spyder I | Quattroporte III Royale | Shamal | 220 | 228 | 420 | 430 |Karif | Barchetta | Ghibli II | Quattroporte IV | 3200 GT
2000-present Coupé-Cabrio | Coupe | Spyder II | Gran Sport | Quattroporte V | MC12 | Gran Turismo
Racing Vehicles 26M · 8C · V8RI · 8CM · 8CLT · 8CTF · 8CL · 6CM · 4CL/4CLT · A6GCM · 150S · Tipo 63 · Tipo 65 · 250F · 200S · 250S · 300S · 350S · 450S · Tipo 61 "Birdcage" · Tipo 151 · Tipo 154 · MC12 GT1 · Trofeo
Concept Cars Boomerang · Birdcage 75th
Fiat Group brands Abarth | Alfa Romeo | Autobianchi | Ferrari | Fiat | Lancia | Innocenti | Maserati
Maserati S.p.A., a subsidiary of the Fiat S.p.A. since 1993, road car timeline, 1950s–present
Type 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ownership Orsi family Citroën De Tomaso Fiat S.p.A.
Executive Biturbo
Luxury Quattroporte QP II QP III QP IV QP V
GT A6 3500 GT Sebring 228 Ghibli II
Mistral Karif
5000 GT Ghibli Khamsin Shamal 3200 GT Coupé GT
2+2 Mexico
Indy Kyalami
Mid-engine Merak
Bora MC12