History of Tuscany
Medici Rule and the Fall of the Republic
The Medici family, long one of the most important families in Florence, and by extension Tuscany, were able to transform the Republic of Florence into a Ducal State ruled by a hereditary succession in the 16th century. For most of that century they ruled Florence and Tuscany quite successfully, expanding the state's territory greatly by acquiring Siena. The Medici were patrons of science and the arts which flowered for much of their reign. Tuscany became a more cohesive and unified state during these years, rather than simply the dominion of a dominating city (Florence). Tuscany under Medici rule, which lasted until 1737, was transformed in a number of ways, not always positively. Most importantly, the economy of Tuscany underwent a fundamental change in character. The wool industry was decimated during these years, though the silk industry was, to some extent, able to replace it. None the less, industry, which had shaped and sustained Florence since the Middle Ages, began to decline throughout the 17th century. Investment in business became less lucrative and there was some “re-feudalization” of the Tuscan state with many patricians investing in land instead of industry. Florence was generally agreed to have declined greatly by the early 18th century, and a series of bad rulers led to a take over by the Holy Roman Empire of the once fine independent state of Tuscany after the Medici dynasty died out.
Notes for a skeleton outline for the History of Tuscany.
Etruscan, Roman, Lombard Tuscany
The name, Tuscany came from the first culture there, the Etruscans.
- Unification of Tuscany
Though 'Tuscany' remained a linguistic, cultural and geographic conception, rather than a political reality, in the 15th Century, Florence extended dominion in Tuscany through the purchase of Pisa in 1405 and the suppression of a local resistance there (1406). Livorno was bought in as well (1421). Siena was more resistant. The Sienese commune was not incorporated into Tuscany until 1555, and during the 15th Century Siena enjoyed a cultural 'Sienese Renaissance' with its own more conservative character. Lucca remained an independent Republic until 1847 when it became part of Grand Duchy of Tuscany for will of its people.
- Medici rule
Nevertheless, during the domination by the Medici family (1434-1494), beginning with Cosimo de' Medici (1434-1464), 'Florence' acted for 'Tuscany.' Without a title, usually without even a formal office, Cosimo and his heirs enjoyed the powers and prestige of virtual princes and presided over the Florentine Renaissance.
- Republic, 1494-1512, 1527-1530
- Ducal Medici, 1512-1527, 1530-1569
The Medici were expelled in 1494 and a Florentine Republic was established (cf Savonarola). The Medici were restored in 1512 and expelled a second time, when a republic was re-established. In 1530 Charles V appointed Alessandro de' Medici hereditary ruler. Cosimo de' Medici became duke in 1537, Siena was incorporated into Tuscany, and Florence became the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1569. Cosimo died in 1574.
- Later Medici
- Cosimo III 1670-1723: Cosimo III was descended from the younger brother of the great Cosimo de' Medici of the previous century.
- Gian Gastone 1723-1737: When Gian Gastone died without heirs, the Grand Duchy was inherited by the House of Lorraine.
1737-1801 House of Habsburg-Lorraine
- Francis of Lorraine 1737-1765: Francis married Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria. When he was elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1747 he passed the Grand Duchy of Tuscany to his son Leopold.
- Leopold I of Lorraine 1765-1790: Known in Italy as Pietro Leopoldino, Leopold was the only progressive reformer in Tuscany. He abolished the last vestiges of serfdom, encouraged trade and industry, and reformed the bureaucracy. During his long reign Tuscany became one of the most prosperous states in Italy. On November 30th. 1786, he promulgated a penal reform making Tuscany the first sovereign state to abolish the death penalty. In this time period Tuscany was also known as a "Guild". Leopold also became Holy Roman Emperor (1790-1792) upon the death of his brother Joseph II (1780-1790).
- Ferdinand III 1790-1801
1801-1807 House of Bourbon-Parma
1809-1814 House of Bonaparte
1814-1860 House of Habsburg-Lorraine